The replica Godspeed under full sail on the James River. Wind brought colonists to Jamestown on the original ship in 1607, and wind carried migrants, supplies, and goods back and forth on the Atlantic until steam replaced sail in the nineteenth century.
Interpreters attach canvas sails to the windmill on the edge of the Historic Area. Grinding corn, wheat, and other grains, these mills operated with the free energy of the wind.
Gravity, working on the stones loaded at one end of a prize—a levering mechanism—compacts tobacco leaves in a barrel.
Two horsepower were enough engine to pull a wagon, driver, passengers, and luggage along rutted colonial roads.
A wooden yoke shifted the strain of carrying water buckets from arms to shoulders, but human muscle was still the sole source of power.
The physics and chemistry of flint igniting gunpowder shot musket balls from barrels.
Clay turns to bricks in the alchemical heat of a kiln.
Pressure for a fire engine’s water cannon depended on simple man power.
In the foundry, a hand-operated bellows intensified a coal fire’s heat.
Row on row, slaves tended tobacco in the fields for centuries before the arrival of tractors and harvesters.
Horse muscle quickened a rider’s trip.
Oysters reach heights they never imagined atop interpreter Emily James' head.
Leather bellows exhale with more force than lungs ever could at the Geddy Foundry.
Muscle and sinew complete the Herculean task of rolling cannon uphill.
Explosive force, contained in a cannon's cylindrical channel, becomes a battlefield ally.
Wood fuels a fire, which fuels hungry humans in its turn.
The oxman's gentle persuasion yields power in the form of willing beasts.
Man versus inertia in a one way tug-of-war.
The clock-like gears of the spit jack power a rotating spit at hearth-level.
Raw metal realizes its potential under fire's influence.