A checkered woolen fabric often used for the uppers of women's shoes in the 18th century.
An ardent supporter of one's country, devoted to the protection of its people and principles. Particularly applied to North Americans opposing continuing English rule.
A small, standing iron grate used to broil meat over a fire.
A pair of iron supports used in a fireplace to suspend burning wood above the hearth.
A public auction.
To work hard, to labor at dull chores. Heard in the phrase "toil and moil."
The iron rim on a wooden wheel of any vehicle.
In the 18th century, a shiny silk used in dressmaking.
A crude, heavy walking stick.
Decorating wood or metal to imitate Oriental designs.
A frying pan with short legs and a long handle used for cooking on a hearth.
Any type of coined metallic money.
A legal document signifying a couple's intent to marry, and if the bride is underage, the consent of her father.
A lady's dress, worn over a petticoat.
Plant fiber used for making rope and heavy fabrics.
A Spanish silver coin used throughout the American colonies; also called a dollar.
The plant that provides linen fibers.
A smooth-bore long gun that shoots shot; usually used for hunting birds.
A built-in storage cupboard.
A glass chandelier.
A large, folding hat built with arches of cane covered with silk.
A vessel used at the dinner table to hold large quantities of wine.
A grant of 50 acres of land promised to each person brought to settle in the colony.
A coin made of gold from Portugal.
Small sums paid by individual landowners to the king for the use of land, since theoretically all land belonged to the crown.
A periodic calling together of militia troops from their homes for inspection and training.
Untanned shark's skin, often dyed green or black.
Lengthwise thread on the weaver's loom.
An unfortunate wandering spirit or supernatural being.
A young person taken in by an accomplished tradesperson for the purpose of learning a trade.
A portion of land set aside for the support of an Anglican minister.
A short, unattached, stand-up neckband.
The name given to the municipal courts of towns like Williamsburg and Norfolk, Virginia.
An iron basket that holds burning wood, coal, or pitched rope to provide outdoor heat and light.
A coin worth a quarter of a penny.
A beat of the drum at the firing of the evening gun; the end of the soldier's working day.
A hat made of beaver pelt.
A preparation of glue and inert white powder, like gypsum or chalk, used as a priming or grounding material onto which paint or metal leaf was applied.
A gun used by cavalry that is not as long as a traditional musket.
Large cylindrical wicker baskets, open at both ends, to be filled with earth and incorporated in earthen fortifications.
When the term is applied to animals, it indicates a strong beast used for drawing a weight or pulling heavy loads.
A four-wheeled carriage with a convertible top, named for the town in Germany where it originated.
A person who has completed an apprenticeship and has become sufficiently skilled to work in a shop.
A cask, specifically a wooden container for shipping tobacco in the colonial period, measuring four feet high and 30 inches in diameter at each end.
Half of a penny, pronounced "hay-penny."
A turned up, or "cock," hat.
A phrase used to describe the span of fourteen nights.
Gaiters of leather or canvas shaped to the leg, covering from the knee to the ankle.
The drawing out of all or part of the army for inspection.
A straw beehive.
Sulphur used in gunpowder, fireworks, and medicines.
An office in which a bookkeeper kept the records of the store.
A traveler who undertakes a journey, particularly one to a place of religious significance.
The order for all enlisted men to retire to their quarters.
A small jar often used in apothecaries to hold ointments and medicines.
A licorice candy, not too sweet, from Pontefract, England.
More than one penny.
Crosswise thread carried in the shuttle of the loom; the woof.
A top with numbered sides used instead of dice in children's games.
A garden feature with geometric beds planted with bushes and flowers and separated by paths.
A cavalryman armed with a lance who rides a light, fast horse.
The head, as in "poll tax," or "poll comb."
A circular iron plate with a long handle. The plate was to be heated in the fire and used to brown the top of a pudding or other food item.
Any long, flat, outdoor green space for bowling or playing skittles.
A wooden disk or square from which food was served or eaten.
A cavalryman on a medium horse, carrying little equipment, often used as a messenger.
Similar to today's pharmacists, the 18th-century apothecary diagnosed ailments and prepared treatments to ease their symptoms.
A card game similar to whist played with either three or five cards. The penalty for losing a trick or breaking a rule is being "looed," or compelled to add money to the pool.
Small, useful articles made from wood.
A ditch or sunken fence to contain livestock. Because it could not be seen from the house or garden, it unified the garden with the surrounding countryside.
A tobacco pipe with a clay bowl, a long reed stem, and decorated with feathers.
A party game in which one person is blindfolded and the other players jostle and taunt him. The "blind man" has to catch and name another player to end his turn.
A little wooden bucket with a long handle made from one of its staves, sometimes used like a ladle.
Thick, rough cloth made from wool and used to make rugged clothing.
One who buys or sells for another.
A type of musket that weighs comparatively little.
Nine skittles, or pins, are knocked down with a rolling ball in a game similar to modern bowling.
Several rings used to hook a cooking pot by its bail over the fire.
The banding used to create garters, which are small loops secured around the calf to hold stockings up.
A small boat used on rivers.
A cask roughly a quarter of the size of a barrel.
Fur skins or pelts.
A piece of luggage for traveling.
Literally, "holy day," an occasion of religious observance.
Any person who owns land, including women and children under legal age.
An 18th-century game played with counters on a compartmentalized board decorated with pictures of geese.
Tobacco that has been dried and ground into powder, to be inhaled or placed between the lip and gums.
Maize finely ground or beaten, soaked with lye-water, then boiled or baked.
A castrated male hog.
A large formal evening party.
A kind of fish spear.
A board game similar to tic-tack-toe played between two players, each with a number (usually nine) of pebbles, wood or metal discs, pegs, or pins.
A canoe-like vessel, with or without sails.
A cask often used to hold wine or beer.
A metal plate worn around the neck by military officers as a symbol of rank.
A light, two-wheeled vehicle built to accommodate one or two passengers, drawn by a single horse.
Multicolored, originally black and white like a magpie.
A balance with two unequal arms, the longer having a movable counterpoise and the shorter bearing a hook to hold the object being weighed.
A popular 18th-century architectural style with whimsical embellishments as its hallmark.
A hobby or interest; a recreational pursuit.
The job of running a household and managing the expenses thereof.
A woman who spins thread, also the legal term for an unmarried woman.
The seed of a cereal crop, such as wheat, barley, or rye.
A young domestic fowl that is older than a chick but not fully mature.
Dry white wine or sherry made in what is now the Jerez region of Spain.
One who undertakes a task or job in contract with another.
A blank book for rough notes on expenses and purchases. Figures from the waste-book would later be copied into a formal ledger.
Wool, wool-linen, or wool silk-cloth for wearing apparel, or for spreading under a table to catch crumbs.
A decorative or architectural style marked by ornate scroll and shell patterns.
A light, four-wheeled, open vehicle drawn by a pair of horses.
The process of melting ore to separate pure metal from dirt, sand, and impurities.
A simple bread made with cornmeal, salt, and water, fried on a hoe in front of a fire.
Almond cream in gelatin form, a popular 18th-century dessert.
A small meal served late in the evening, usually light food requiring little preparation.
A semitransparent, whitish, pure form of gelatin made from the air bladders of sturgeons.
An instrument of punishment built to confine the neck and wrists in a wooden yoke.
A kind of candy made from pounded almonds and sugar, formed into small cakes or ornamental shapes.
The main meal of the day, in the 1700s, served about 2:00 p.m.
Delicacies such as candied fruits and nuts or sugared pastries.
A farm or estate where a staple crop such as cotton, sugar, or tobacco is grown.
A dressmaker who makes mantuas, a popular style of gown in the 17th and 18th centuries.
An enclosed vehicle with one forward-facing seat that accommodates two to three people.
Any rented property, whether land or buildings.
The last meal of the day, usually a light meal of leftovers. Also an elaborate meal for a festive social occasion.
The district under the oversight of a single minister.
An assembly of elected representatives of a parish, held originally in the part of the church where robes, or vestments, were kept.
A legal profession of the 18th century.
A young boy hired to perform small tasks or errands in the printer's office.
A connoisseur of fine arts.
The brick or stone composing the structure of walls set between windows or doors.
The small bits of colorful marble and glass that comprise a mosaic.
A backless bench.
A young lady's suitor or male admirer.
Finely chopped and highly seasoned meat, formed into small balls and used as stuffing or garnish.
A large drinking cup with a wide mouth.
A sticky resin made made from the distillation of wood tar or turpentine, used to seal and waterproof ships.
A shop that carries exquisite goods, particularly those from Milan, Italy.
A beer prized for its dark, bitter composition.
The driver of a cart.
A newspaper or other periodical.
January 5th, the end of the Christmas holidays.
A fund-raising scheme for a charitable institution, wherein a distribution of prized is determined by the random selection of numbered tickets, or lots.
The happiness and security of the public, also the population of a state.
An instrument of punishment consisting of two planks set edgewise with two holes cut in the center. The person sat with his ankles locked between the two planks.
A view or prospect, especially as seen through an avenue of trees or similar long and narrow opening.
The frothy mass of fermentation formed on top of ale.
The fleshy part of the back leg of an animal, suitable for roasting.
Surprised; confounded, out of one's senses.
A sauce of mashed anchovies, oysters, mushrooms, or walnuts.
A slice of meat.
A large leather jug for beer or other beverages, made black by an external coat of tar.
A dry sweetmeat; any kind of nut, fruit, seed or root that has been dried and preserved with sugar.
The horn or antler of a hart, or deer, used as a source of gelatin.
A batter of cornmeal, salt and water, cooked in the coals of a fire.
In England, an oatmeal or barley cake. In North America, the recipe is adapted and made with cornmeal.
A moist gelatin of sweetmeat or preserved fruit.
An anatomical reference to the lungs.
An animal's stomach, prepared as food.
A hearty meat and vegetable stew.
A flavorful stew of vegatables and chopped meat.
The starchy pith of West Indian palms, used to thicken soups and puddings.
A weaned young pig.
A crunchy garnish of toasted or fried bread.
A boiled, seasoned, pressed loaf of scraps from a pig's head.
A flirtatious, frivolous man.
An immature pigeon.
Undigested, curdled milk from a calf's stomach used in the cheese-making process.
A favorite item at the table, served each day or at each meal.
A ceramic, glass, or metal dispenser for condiments such as vinegar, pepper, or dry mustard.
An oil or vinegar dispenser for use at the table.
A large glass jug with a three to ten gallon capacity, often protected with a wicker or rush covering.
A cask made to convey fish, butter, or other liquids, equal in volume to one fourth of a barrel.
A hefty, lidded drinking bottle with a handle and spout.
A serving dish for soup or stew, characterized by its deep oval shape.
A triple-time dance performed by a single couple.
The term for a number of French dances composed of an assortment of steps and figures.
A family of English dances in which couples line up in facing pairs.
An exclamation expressing surprise, taken from the word "lord."
A phrase denoting denial or rejection of the comments of another.
A lusty kiss.
A flirtatious, silly woman.
A man who is a woman's partner in intrigue, often a married woman's lover.
A charming country beau.
A flirtatious glance.
An immoral woman unworthy of respect.
Something superficially frightening but actually powerless.
A bold, saucy, or ill-mannered woman.
A disparaging term for a man who is young, foolish, or both.
A well-bred person with charming manners.
Low bred or ill-mannered.
A mole-like spot which fashionable ladies applied to the face.
An exclamation of agreement or encouragement: a hurray.
A sloping angle incorporated into masonry to channel water away from the foundation.
A building's upper floors: upstairs.
Wicked or immoral habits or behavior.
Something that is understood to have a positive effect on health, like a walk or fresh air.
Suffering the effects of black bile; to be irritable, angry, or peevish.
To have phlegm as the dominant bodily humor, characterized by passivity and inactivity.
To be snappish, bad-tempered.
A medical theory that credits health with a balance of four humors: blood, phlegm, choler, and melancholy. Excess or deficit of any could cause illness or mood changes.
A fatty substance harvested from sperm whales used to make medicines and candles.
A straight-stemmed marsh plant used as fuel for light and as a floor covering.
Recreation or amusement.
Hospitable accommodation for the needs of a guest, especially a formal meal.
A dwelling's principal multipurpose room.
In Southern domestic architecture, the space at the center of a house which runs from the front door to the back door, providing a waiting area and allowing air to circulate.
An architectural style referring to an 18th-century English preference for the neoclassical style of Palladio and reaction against the baroque.
A liquid measure equal to two ounces or a fourth of a pint.
A modest serving of a cordial or alcohol, equal to one eighth of an ounce.
A textile measurement which varies by country.
A tax for the support of religious establishments.
A tax assessed by person.
An invigorating or bracing medicine.
A folding case for carrying papers in one's pocket, or another term for a man's wallet.
In the Revolutionary War, one who remained loyal to England.
To smear an individual with tar and then cover him with feathers; a mob punishment inflicted on unpopular or scandalous characters.
A coarse linen or cotton made in Osnabruk, Germany. The rugged fabric was ideal for hard-wearing clothing, sacks, and tents.
Potassium nitrate used in making gunpowder and some medicines.
A long braid of hair.
A richly woven silk fabric ornamented with elaborate patterns.
One of the finest types of black tea.
Braided and bleached straw used in the construction of hats and bonnets.
The alphabet and Lord's prayer, mounted on a piece of wood and covered by a thin sheath of horn, used as a child's learning aid.
A transparent or translucent case made to protect a flame; a lantern.
Once who is lazy, worthless, and of no value.
One who is hardworking, able, and clever.
A center of community protest.
A domestic trash pit.
Originally a king's formal order, later used to refer to any official announcement.
A public statement contained in a document or public act.
A flood caused by heavy rains or melted snow.
The current, or present. For example, "the 21st instant" would refer to the 21st of this month.
An abbreviation of the Latin "videlicet," meaning "namely," or "to wit." Used in correspondence or conversation to introduce an amplification or explanation.
An abbreviation for "ditto," meaning "the same."
The time when candles are lit: nightfall, or dusk.
A vesel kept in the bedchamber for nighttime emissions.
A small structure with an enclosed seat on a raised platform built to house a latrine.
A genteel female, or the wife of a lord.
An allowance or provision of food: board.
A punch made from rum, sugar, water and nutmeg.
Beer low in alcoholic content, taken at meals and throughout the day.
One who paints portraiture.
A woman in charge of the maintenance and operation of a charitable institution.
An actor who is not a tragedian.
A theater where plays are performed.
An actor or actress who performs in plays.
An appeal or request.
A decorative or protective article worn over a woman's gown.
A skirt worn under a woman's gown.
The flag or standard of a military unit or ship.
A shaping garment which molded a woman's torso into a conical form.
Soft baby food made of bread moistened with milk or water.
A padded bonnet worn by toddlers to protect the head during play.
Fabric lines sewn to a child's clothing used to tether a toddler to an adult.
One who performs the duties of a legal or biological father.
A woman hired to breastfeed an infant.
A baby's diaper.
One who separates from a specified church.
To caper or romp like children or playful animals.
A lighthearted adventure.
A branching centerpiece at the table used to hold sweetmeats, fruit, nuts, and other delicacies.
An officer of the church whose duties include ringing the bell and digging graves.
A child rendered parentless by death or abandonment. In colonial Virginia, the term might apply to a minor whose father has died but whose mother is living.
A fugitive or deserter.
A malarial fever marked by fits or paroxysms. Sufferers experience cold, hot, and sweating stages.
A slave dwelling.
A small room or office used for study, writing, or privacy.
A sweetened cordial made with milk or cream mixed with wine or cider.
The rank of a gentleman or lady.
A supplemental civilian military force.
A large, abundant, and prized species of fish found in coastal North America.
An oil boiled from the blubber of whales, seals, and other fish.
A line strung for catching a drum-fish, which gets its name from the drumming noise it makes.
One who signs a letter or formal document: the undersigned.
Sharpness, cleverness, or one who embodies those qualities.
To be dexterous or clever.
A sweet, curative drink of hot curdled milk and ale or spirits.
A vest-like article worn by gentlemen who would have pronounced the word "weskot."
A piece of fabric worn at the top of a woman's low gown.
A capacious iron cooking pot which is nested in embers and whose lid is covered with coals.
A young enslaved female servant.
A greenish plum with a fine flavor.
An abbreviated form of the Latin phrase, "nota bene," meaning "note well."
One who makes perukes, which today are known as wigs.
An organizations' treasurer.
A boycott which prohibits the entry of foreign ships and the departure of native ones, generally issued under threat of conflict.
A literary work which examines a particular subject in some detail.
The middle class, or people of moderate means.
A long, sleeved undergarment worn under a gown.
A man's slightly fitted dressing gown; popular leisure wear in the 18th century.
A seller of wool or linen cloth.
The most popular mixed drink of the 18th century, made with citrus, sugar, water, spice, and spirits.
The feast of St. Michael, celebrated September 29 and pronounced "Mickelmas."
A summer squash with a scalloped edge.
Tooth powder, or toothpaste.
A painted depiction of inland scenery, as distinguished from a sea picture, portrait, or other subject.
A caddy for holding dry, unused tea leaves.
A cider-like alcoholic beverage made from pear juice.
A distilled beverage made from the fermented sap of the coconut palm.
To drink alcohol often and in small quantities; the habitual indulgence in intoxicating beverages.
A morbid condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the body's serous cavities or connective tissue.
A beer-based hot holiday punch popular in the Christmas season.
A common pleasure boat of the colonial period, adapted from American Indian log canoes.
One who delivers mail on horseback.
The professional practice of medicine.
A binding contract which obligates a servant to a master or an apprentice to a trade.
A woodworker who creates objects by joining wood.
Wearing loose or shabby footwear suggestive of an overall state of decrepitude.
A call to arms; a signal for men to arm themselves.
A ringing alarm bell.
The knowledge of household management, to include food preparation, sewing, and laundry.
An order to provide food and shelter for troops.
A companion or partner, sometimes a spouse.
A petty trouble or disturbance, or the exclamation made in the presence of one.
To nag or annoy.
A beverage made from roasted and ground seeds of the cacao pod and heated milk, water, brandy, or wine.
A strange and unfamiliar denizen of a foreign country.
Correspondence written to be circulated among people with a shared interest in its contents.
A country's foremost city or seat of government.
A designation attributed to those things coming from or belonging to the colonies during and after the Revolutionary War.
A military officer whose responsibility is the overseeing of military provisions and supplies.
A writer of brief political tracts or pamphlets.
A greenhouse optimized for the cultivation of oranges and other exotic citrus in cold climes.
A written work about plants and the garden.
A city magistrate, subordinate in stature to the mayor.
A small pouch sewn into a woman's waistband and worn under her gown.
One whose even temper is easily lost.
The plural of beef; cattle or oxen.
The plural of cow.
A raised house for nesting doves or pigeons.
The seventh Sunday after Easter; Pentecost
An oboe, a reeded wind instrument.
Benjamin Franklin's musical invention, a glass cylinder mounted horizontally and played by touching moistened fingertips to the rotating instrument.
A term applied to groups regarded as uncivilized and uneducated. Often used to refer to American Indians.
A series of wooden posts forming a wall or fortress.
To run away with the intent of concealing oneself, as a criminal before the law.
Also known as Indian corn, a cereal grass of North America.
A shallow dish where milk rests as the cream rises.
A cooking term analogous to boiling.
A manual of medicines and instructions for the method of their application.
A small complement of artillery pieces used for tactical missions.
Infantrymen whose job it is to clear a path to admit the passing of the troop as a whole.
A list of the property and holdings of a deceased person.
An inventory which lists the value of the property of a deceased person.
The structure or construction of anything, especially of buildings.
A phrase used to describe the span of seven nights.
A small outbuilding or room used to cure meat by means of smoke.
The collective term for a gentleman's coat, waistcoat, and breeches.
A building used to store merchandise, especially tobacco in 18th-century Williamsburg.
The Caribbean, where sugar was the main crop in the 18th and 19th centuries.
A particular room or set of rooms in a house, often a bedroom.
Corruption of the Spanish word "cacao," the Mexican name of the cacao-seed. By 1604, a beverage made from the seeds of the cacao-tree was called chocolate.
The name English colonists gave to the red-breasted thrush of North America.
An annual table or book of tables containing a calendar of months, days, holidays, and useful information.